Survey Design, Implementation, and Analysis

Scroll down for reprints and web links related to:

1. General Monitoring Strategies

2. Detectability and Density Estimation

3. Presence-absence and Occupancy

4. Habitat- or Taxon-specific Survey Techniques

5. Trend Analysis

Please note that dated citations denote a PDF reprint.


General Monitoring Strategies

Cost-effective sampling design applied to large-scale monitoring of boreal birds (Carlson and Schmiegelow 2002)

Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants (Vesely et al. 2006)

Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization, and turnover in animal communities (Nichols et al. 1998)

Evaluation of a multiple species approach to monitoring (Manley et al. 2005)

Manager's monitoring manual: how to design a wildlife monitoring program (Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

Minimizing the cost of environmental management decisions by optimizing statistical thresholds (Field et al. 2004)

Optimizing allocation of monitoring effort under economic and observational constraints (Field et al. 2005)

Recommendations for survey design and analysis (EUmon 2005)

Risk-based viable population monitoring (Staples et al. 2005)

Sampling design considerations: where and when to sample (National Park Service)

Statistical considerations in monitoring birds over large areas (Johnson 2007)

Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats (Holthausen et al. 2005)


Detectability and Density Estimation

A conceptual guide to detection probability for point counts and other count-based survey methods (McCallum 2005)

A double-observer approach for estimating detetion probability and abundance from point counts (Nichols et al. 2000)

A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point counts (Alldredge et al. 2007)

A field evaluation of the time-of-detection method to estimate population size and density for aural avian point counts (Alldredge et al. 2007)

A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys (Farnsworth et al. 2002)

Are point counts of boreal songibrds reliable proxies for more intensive abundance estimators? (Toms et al. 2006)

Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring (Moore and Kendall 2004)

Density estimation in wildlife surveys (Bart et al. 2004)

Detection probability of Golden-winged Warblers during point counts with and without playback recordings (Kubel and Yahner 2007)

Double-sampling to estimate density and population trends in birds (Bart and Earnst 2002)

Estimating abundance from bird counts - binomial mixture models uncover complex covariate relationships (Kery 2008)

Estimating detection probabilities from multiple observer point counts (Alldredge et al. 2006)

Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys (Fletcher and Hutto 2006)

Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: a combination of distance and double-observer sampling (Kissling and Garton 2006)

Experimental analysis of the auditory detection process on avian point counts (Simons et al. 2007)

Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds (Alldredge 2007)

Field comparison of removal and modified double-observer modeling for estimating detectability and abundance of birds (Moore et al. 2004)

Guidelines for using double sampling in avian population monitoring (Collins 2007)

Importance of well-designed monitoring programs for the conservation of endangered species: case study of the Snail Kite (Martin et al. 2007)

Improving estimates of bird density using multiple-covariate distance sampling (Marques et al. 2007)

Improving inferences in population studies of rare species that are detected imperfectly (MacKenzie et al. 2005)

In defense of indices: the case of bird surveys (Johnson 2007)

Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance (Diefenbach et al. 2007)

Inference methods for spatial variation in species richness and community composition when not all species are detected (Nichols et al. 1998)

Landbird counting techniques: current practices and an alternative (Rosenstock et al. 2002)

Large scale wildlife monitoring studies: statistical methods for design and analysis (Pollock et al. 2002)

Multiple species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modelling framework (Alldredge et al. 2007)

On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: a reply to Ellingson and Lukacs (Hutto and Young 2003)

Point-transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies (Buckland 2006)

Presentations given at the 2007 Bird Monitoring and Detectability Symposium at Colorado State University

Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains (Hutto and Young 2002)

Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data (Farnsworth et al. 2005)

Statistical aspects of point count sampling (Barker and Sauer 1995)

Time-of-detection method for estimating abundance from point-count surveys (Alldredge et al. 2007)

Towards reliable bird surveys: accounting for individuals present but not detected (Thompson 2002)

Using statistical probability to increase confidence of inferring species extinction (Reed 1996)


Presence-Absence and Occupancy

Abundance-occupancy relationships (Gaston et al. 2000)

Can models of presence-absence be used to scale abundance? (Nielsen et al. 2005)

Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort (MacKenzie and Royle 2005)

Detecting population declines over large surveys with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods (Pollock 2006)

Estimating abundance from bird counts: binomial mixture models uncover complex covariate relationships (Kery 2008)

Estimating abundance from repeated presence-absence data or point counts (Royle and Nichols 2003)

Estimating and dealing with detectability in occupancy surveys of forest owls (Wintle et al. 2005)

Estimating site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction when a species is detected imperfectly (MacKenzie et al. 2003)

Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one (MacKenzie et al. 2002)

Exercises in occupancy modeling and estimation (Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Spreadsheet Project)

Modeling occurrence and abundance of species when detection is imperfect (Royle et al. 2005)

Modeling of site-occupancy dynamics for northern spotted owls (Olson et al. 2005)

Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation (MacKenzie and Nichols 2004)

Occupancy models to study wildlife (Bailey and Adams 2005)

Old dog new tricks: innovations with presence-absence information (Vojta 2005)

Presence-absence versus abundance data for monitoring threatened species (Joseph et al. 2006)

Statistical power of presence-absence data to detect population trends (Strayer 1999)

Teasing out biological effects and sampling artifacts when using occupancy rate in monitoring programs (Gonzalo-Turpin 2008)

What are the issues with presence-absence data for wildlife managers? (MacKenzie 2005)


Field Protocols

Breeding Passerines

A portable system for continuous monitoring of bird nests using digital video recorders (Pierce and Pobprasert 2007)

Increasing accuracy of productivity and survival estimates in assessing landbird population status (Anders and Marshall 2005)

Monitoring bird populations by point counts (Ralph et al. 1995)

Mountain Birdwatch: Protocol and Standard Operating Procedures for Monitoring High-elevation Landbirds in the Northern Appalachian and Laurentian Regions (Hart and Lambert 2008, Eds.)

Ornithological atlas data: a review of uses and limitations (Donald and Fuller 1998)

Passerine monitoring protocol for National Wildlife Refuges (Midwest and Northeast) and National Paks in the Great Lakes Network - DRAFT (Knutson et al.  2007)

Playbacks of mobbing calls of black-capped chickadees as a method to estimate reproductive activity (Gunn et al. 2000)

Point count summary statistics differentially predict reproductive activity (Betts et al. 2005)

Recommendations for inventorying and monitoring landbirds in National Parks (Fancy and Sauer 2000)

Marsh Birds

Call-response surveys for monitoring breeding waterbirds (Gibbs and Melvin 1993)

Development and field testing of survey methods for a continental marsh bird monitoring program in North America (Conway and Nadeau 2006)

Effectiveness of call-broadcast surveys for monitoring marsh birds (Conway and Gibbs 2005)

Moving Ahead on a Continental Scale Marsh Bird Monitoring Framework 

Progress toward developing field protocols for a North American marsh bird monitoring program (Conway and Timmermans 2005)

Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocols (Conway 2006)

Temporal variation in detection of marsh birds during broadcast of conspecific calls (Rehm and Baldassarre 2007)

Migrating Birds

Counting migrants to monitor bird populations: State of the art (Dunn 2005)

Flight calls and their value for future ornithological studies and conservation research (Farnsworth 2005)

Long-term counts of migrating raptors: a role for volunteers in wildlife research (Bildstein 1998)

The North American Bird Banding Program into the 21st Century (Buckley et al. 1998)

Recent publications in radar ornithology

Night Birds

Estimating and dealing with detectability in occupancy surveys of forest owls (Wintle et al. 2005)

Guidelines for nocturnal owl monitoring in North America (Takats et al. 2001)


Modeling of site-occupancy dynamics for northern spotted owls (Olson et al. 2005)

Monitoring boreal forest owls in Ontario using tape playback surveys with volunteers (Francis and Bradstreet 1997)

The effect of moonlight on detection of whip-poor-wills - implications for long-term monitoring strategies (Wilson and Watts 2006)


Northern goshawk inventory and monitoring technical guide (Woodbridge and Hargis 2006)

Upland Game Birds

CP33 Upland Habitat Buffers Monitoring Protocol (DRAFT) (Southeast Quail Study Group 2004)

Water Birds

Breeding season survey techniques for seabirds and colonial waterbirds (Steinkamp et al. 2003)

Wintering Birds

Comparison of survey methods for wintering grassland birds (Roberts and Schnell 2006)

Enhancing the scientific value of the Christmas Bird Count (Dunn et al. 2005)


Trend Analysis

A hierarchical analysis of population change with application to cerulean warblers (Link and Sauer 2002)

Detecting population decline of birds using long-term monitoring data (Fujisaki et al. 2008)

Estimating equations estimates of trends (Link and Sauer 1994)

Estimating population change from count data (Link and Sauer 1998)

Estimating population trends with a linear model (Bart et al. 2003)

Estimating population trends with a linear model: technical comments (Sauer et al. 2004)

Estimation of change from survey data: results and summary of a workshop held 11-12 March 2003 at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data (Sauer et al. 2003)

Goals and strategies for estimating trends in landbird abundance (Bart et al. 2004)

Hierarchical modeling of population stability and species group attributes from survey data (Sauer and Link 2002)

Modelling population change from time series data (Barker and Sauer 1992)

New approaches to the analysis of population trends (James et al. 1996)

New approaches to the analysis of population trends: comment (Link and Sauer 1997)

New approaches to the analysis of population trend: reply (McCulloch et al. 1997)

Statistical aspects of modeling population change from population size data (Sauer et al. 1994)

Statistical guide to data analysis of avian monitoring programs (Nur et al. 1999)

The importance of analysis method for breeding bird survey population trend estimates (Thomas and Martin 1996)

Why are there so many analysis methods? (Thomas 1996)


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